Ubérisation de la société: nouveau monde ou reproduction de l’ancien?

Bébé de l’Internet

L’avènement d’Internet permet de communiquer avec la planète entière.  Le fait que l’on puisse le faire à partir de son téléphone cellulaire rend cette communication quasi instantanée, peu importe l’heure ou le lieu où l’on se trouve.  Ces possibilités se trouvent à l’origine du développement de plateformes d’offres de services tels Uber dans l’industrie du taxi et Air B & B dans le secteur de l’hôtellerie.  Au Québec (et j’imagine partout où le truc s’est implanté), l’introduction de ces plateformes a fait débat.

Et il y a lieu de s’interroger puisque maintenant, tous les secteurs traditionnels sont touchés :  la restauration, le déménagement, l’agriculture, etc.  Par contre, il n’existe (pas encore) pas de plateforme pour tous les types d’offre.  Est-ce que ça viendra?

Le « phénomène » existe depuis une dizaine d’année.

Économie collaborative (sic)

Certains définissent la chose comme étant une économie collaborative, ou une économie du partage.  Mais, méfions-nous des mots et des vendeurs!.  Où se trouve la collaboration dans une telle pratique?  Il y a un vendeur et un acheteur.  Comment collaborent-ils … s’ils collaborent?  Et le partage :  est-ce qu’un vendeur partage ce qu’il a à vendre ou s’il le vend?

Je crois que l’on pourrait plus qualifier d’économie collaborative ou du partage la façon dont certaines tribus « primitives » fonctionnent.  Par exemple, l’un tue un gros animal et partage avec toute la communauté sans demander rétribution.  Il ne reçoit, pour son acte, que reconnaissance et notoriété en tant qu’individu, que chasseur.

D’autres parlent d’économie 3.0.  En fait, oui, ce type de commerce est caractéristique du monde numérique qui a pris forme lors des 30 dernières années.  Par contre, ce type de commerce ne redéfinit pas du tout le système dans lequel il a pris forme comme nous le verrons en conclusion.

Dans les cas où il existe une plateforme pour offrir un service, cette dernière sert d’intermédiaire entre l’acheteur et le vendeur (proposeur) de service.  Au passage, elle prélève un tribut pour son service.

En ce qui concerne Air B & B, c’est 40 M d’utilisateurs.  On peut alors comprendre que, pour gérer une telle affluence, il faut une armée de travailleurs dans des bureaux, face à leurs ordinateurs.  Il faut également se rendre compte que le créateur de la plateforme est devenu, au fil des ans, multi millionnaire.  Possède-t-il un esprit collaboratif?  Manifeste-t-il un esprit de partage?  Est-ce que ses employés sont syndiqués?  Jouissent-ils de bons salaires, de bonnes conditions de travail, de la sécurité d’emploi, d’un régime d’assurance-santé?

Proposeurs de services

Les proposeurs de service sont de deux ordres.   Un groupe fait métier d’offrir des services.  Parfois un propriétaire de maison à revenu transforme un ou des logements en location journalière ou hebdomadaire.  Certains de ceux-là s’en tirent avec des revenus plus qu’intéressants malgré qu’ils soient soumis aux lois de l’impôt quant aux revenus qu’ils tirent leur activité commerciale.

Mais il existe également des gens qui offrent, à l’occasion, qui une chambre dans leur logement, qui une course faite à l’aide de sa voiture.  On qualifie ce type de proposeurs d’ « intermittents » du partage.  Comme dans l’expression :  « un travail intermittent » i.e. irrégulier, sans conditions de travail respectables, ni sécurité de quelque sorte que ce soit.  On dit que cette façon de faire procure des revenus additionnels et offre un nouveau mode de vie à ceux qui offrent des services.    

Pour le mieux? 

Travail au noir

En fait, ça bouleverse complètement la vie de ces intermittents du partage!  Ça augmente leur stress :  trouver (ou non) preneur pour leur service, laisse de côté leur intimité, les oblige continuellement à être disponibles, à l’affût de l’opportunité, augmente leurs responsabilités face à un client, etc.

Souvent le quidam qui offre un service le fait dans le but de réaliser un 2è revenu ou pour arrondir ses fins de mois parce qu’il vit une situation précaire financièrement.  Il le fait généralement aussi parce que cette activité n’est régie par aucun code gouvernemental et ne sera pas comptabilisée dans ses revenus en regard de l’impôt.

Un travail exécuté en marge des lois régissant la société s’appelle le « travail au noir ». La chose existe depuis qu’il existe des lois.  Une législation encadrant l’activité protégerait autant les intérêts du proposeur que de l’acheteur.   Comme ce service fonctionne « sous la table », il ne participe pas non plus à l’effort collectif que sont les impôts et les taxes mais aussi le filet social comme l’assurance-emploi ou le régime de rente.  De plus, cette manière d’agir n’aide pas à se créer un profil financier qui pourrait, éventuellement, favoriser auprès d’une institution financière l’obtention d’une hypothèque ou un prêt pour quelque raison que ce soit.

Qui gagne dans ce jeu?

Voyons maintenant qui gagne à ce jeu.

Sans aucun doute possible, ce sont les plateformes comme Uber et Air B & B qui ressortent gagnants d’un tel modèle de fonctionnement.  Ils prélèvent un pourcentage sur chaque transaction qui se fait … peu importe où elle se fait!  À ce que je sache, étant donné qu’aucune législation n’existe pour encadrer cette activité internationale, ces plateformes n’ont aucune obligation d’avoir pignon sur rue dans les pays où elles opèrent et, donc, se soustraient de payer des impôts à beaucoup d’endroits où elles font affaire.

Comme E-Bay, Netflix, Amazon et autres entreprises du genre, ce sont des entités corporatives, nées grâce à Internet, qui existent, pour ainsi dire, dans un nuage, un espace virtuel sans frontières et pratiquement sans lois auxquelles elles seraient soumises.

Bien sûr, elles rendent un certain service et font l’affaire de consommateurs peu avisés des conséquences sociétales de ces activités de commerce.

De leurs côtés, certains proposeurs tirent avantage d’une telle façon de procéder.  Comme nous l’avons vu, ce sont ceux qui ont des maisons qu’ils louent au jour ou à la semaine.  Mais ces individus ne représentent qu’une infime partie des proposeurs.  La grande majorité des gens qui offrent un service sont des gens à faible revenu qui tentent, par ce moyen, de survivre dans un univers économique toujours plus difficile et exigeant.  Un monde où le travail n’offre plus les garantis qu’il offrait jadis, qui devient continuellement plus précaire, où les salaires stagnent et les emplois sont davantage occupés par des robots.

Comme aucune loi n’encadre cette activité économique, les prix sont fixés par le marché.  Donc, il est fonction de l’offre.  Et cette offre constitue une jungle.  Il suffit qu’un des acteurs baisse son prix pour que tous les autres soient dans l’obligation de suivre la « tendance ».  Les chambres se bradent, pour ainsi dire.  Dans la réalité, cette situation ne fait qu’augmenter la pauvreté de la population. 

Le troisième joueur impliqué dans cette activité est sans doute celui qui perd le plus.  En fait, lui et ceux et celles qu’il représente :  le gouvernement.

Ces plateformes, ces commerces en ligne passent outre les législations locales.  Ce sont des milliards de dollars qui se transigent sans qu’aucun sou de ceux-là ne soit affecté par les lois régissant l’économie des pays à l’intérieur desquels les transactions s’opèrent.  D’après vous, à combien se chiffre le manque à gagner de taxes et d’impôts pour les pays qui acceptent ce type de commerce sans réagir?  Des millions et des milliards!  Cet argent favorise qui, va dans les poches de qui?  De quel groupe font partie les propriétaires de ces plateformes?

Au bout du compte, c’est tout le peuple qui en souffre puisque ces taxes et impôts non payés pourraient servir à entretenir un filet social décent.

Pourquoi le gouvernement ne réagit pas

À mon avis, le gouvernement fait quelque chose.  Justement, il ne réagit pas … à escient!

Car son inaction fait partie d’un plan, d’une stratégie qu’on appelle le globalisme.  Les défenseurs de cette idéologie politique font tout, depuis des lunes, pour abolir les frontières, adoucir partout les lois concernant le commerce, favoriser la délocalisation des entreprises, internationaliser les échanges de marchandises, détruire, en somme, le commerce local.  Le cas des GAFAM est un bel exemple auquel l’ubérisation peut ressembler.

Et nos bons gouvernements s’inscrivent dans ce courant idéologique.  Mieux :  ils sont carrément mis en place par les Bilderbergs et autres illuminatis du genre.

Conclusion

On veut nous faire croire qu’Air B & B, Uber, etc. représentent une nouvelle façon de consommer !?!  Absolument pas.  Il y a toujours eu du travail au noir, parallèle.  Mais dans le cas qui nous préoccupe, c’est l’économie au noir qui prend le dessus.  Elle enrichit la personne qui crée la plateforme et paupérise la plupart du temps ceux qui offrent des services. 

L’ubérisation de la société donne au client l’illusion qu’il encourage le commerce local!?!  Pour ce faire, pourquoi ce dernier ne va-t-il pas alors dans le B & B local qui, lui, paie les taxes et les impôts relatifs à ce commerce légal?  Parce que ces plateformes font sauter l’industrie en place (taxi, hôtels, etc.) qui, elle, paie des taxes, des assurances, loyers, etc.  

On ne change en rien le système qui est présentement en place et qui nous a amené droit dans le mur dans lequel nous nous trouvons.  On ne fait que le reproduire … sous un nouveau packaging.

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